Thursday, March 19, 2020
John (Ramsey) Campbell, a twentieth century British writer, has been said to be creating Ã¢â¬Å"his own patented brand of short horror tale[s],Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Horror Fiction,Ã¢â¬ 86). From the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s to present day, the comparisons to H.P. Lovecraft and the examinations of his short stories have been numerous. These findings give evidence to CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s concern with the psychological horror. Ever since he picked up his first issue of Ã¢â¬Å"Weird TalesÃ¢â¬ he has been enthralled with these terrors. In his short story, Ã¢â¬Å"The SneeringÃ¢â¬ , it can be analyzed in regard to symbolism, tone and characterization. CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s most memorable childhood memories were those of being petrified. He had begun to read adult horror fiction at age eight to crave his hunger for terror. He soon began writing at eleven years of age. He knew that Ã¢â¬Å"most writers start by imitating their favoritesÃ¢â¬ (PSFG, 1), so he pursued in imitating his favorite author, H.P. Lovecraft. Further more his own home life affected his work. His mother went mad, and the fear of his father was tremendous. Even Campbell himself declared that Ã¢â¬Å"while the supernatural elements in these tales werenÃ¢â¬â¢t autobiographical, the feelings were,Ã¢â¬ (PSFG, 2). John Ramsey Campbell, born in 1946, originates from a town called Liverpool. He publicated his first novel Demons by Daylight in 1973, and released his debut work of fiction in 1976, entitled The Doll Who Ate His Mother. While writing his early novels he had been working at the tax office and library as well. After he published his second collec tion he decided to write full time. He received his first literary award, the World Fantasy Award, for Ã¢â¬Å"The ChimneyÃ¢â¬ in 1978. He later received this award again in 1980. Another award he earned was the British Fantasy Award, which he grasped in 1978 for Ã¢â¬Å"The Bag.Ã¢â¬ This award was also received in 1980, 1985, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991 and 1994. In 1992 he commemorated thirty years of... Free Essays on Ramsey Campbell Analyzed Free Essays on Ramsey Campbell Analyzed John (Ramsey) Campbell, a twentieth century British writer, has been said to be creating Ã¢â¬Å"his own patented brand of short horror tale[s],Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Horror Fiction,Ã¢â¬ 86). From the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s to present day, the comparisons to H.P. Lovecraft and the examinations of his short stories have been numerous. These findings give evidence to CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s concern with the psychological horror. Ever since he picked up his first issue of Ã¢â¬Å"Weird TalesÃ¢â¬ he has been enthralled with these terrors. In his short story, Ã¢â¬Å"The SneeringÃ¢â¬ , it can be analyzed in regard to symbolism, tone and characterization. CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s most memorable childhood memories were those of being petrified. He had begun to read adult horror fiction at age eight to crave his hunger for terror. He soon began writing at eleven years of age. He knew that Ã¢â¬Å"most writers start by imitating their favoritesÃ¢â¬ (PSFG, 1), so he pursued in imitating his favorite author, H.P. Lovecraft. Further more his own home life affected his work. His mother went mad, and the fear of his father was tremendous. Even Campbell himself declared that Ã¢â¬Å"while the supernatural elements in these tales werenÃ¢â¬â¢t autobiographical, the feelings were,Ã¢â¬ (PSFG, 2). John Ramsey Campbell, born in 1946, originates from a town called Liverpool. He publicated his first novel Demons by Daylight in 1973, and released his debut work of fiction in 1976, entitled The Doll Who Ate His Mother. While writing his early novels he had been working at the tax office and library as well. After he published his second collec tion he decided to write full time. He received his first literary award, the World Fantasy Award, for Ã¢â¬Å"The ChimneyÃ¢â¬ in 1978. He later received this award again in 1980. Another award he earned was the British Fantasy Award, which he grasped in 1978 for Ã¢â¬Å"The Bag.Ã¢â¬ This award was also received in 1980, 1985, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991 and 1994. In 1992 he commemorated thirty years of...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
World War I Flying Ace Rene Fonck Colonel Rene Fonck was the top-scoring Allied fighter ace of World War I. Scoring his first victory in August 1916, he went on to down 75 German aircraft during the course of the conflict. After World War I, Fonck later returned to the military and served until 1939. Dates:Ã March 27, 1894 Ã¢â¬âÃ June 18, 1953Ã Early Life Born on March 27, 1894, RenÃ © Fonck was raised in the village of Saulcy-sur-Meurthe in the mountainous Vosges region of France. Educated locally, he had an interest in aviation as a youngster. With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Fonck received conscription papers on August 22. Despite his earlier fascination with aircraft, he elected not to take an assignment in the air service and, instead, joined the combat engineers. Operating along the Western Front, Fonck constructed fortifications and repaired infrastructure. Though a skilled engineer, he reconsidered in early 1915 and volunteered for flight training. Learning to Fly Ordered to Saint-Cyr, Fonck commenced basic flight instruction before moving to more advanced training at Le Crotoy. Progressing through the program, he earned his wings in May 1915 and was assigned to Escadrille C 47 at Corcieux. Serving as an observation pilot, Fonck initially flew the ungainly Caudron G III. In this role, he performed well and was mentioned in dispatches twice. Flying in July 1916, Fonck downed his first German aircraft. Despite this triumph, he did not receive credit as the kill went unconfirmed. The following month, on August 6, Fonck achieved his first credited kill when he used a series of maneuvers to force a German Rumpler C.III to land behind French lines. Becoming a Fighter Pilot For Foncks actions on August 6, he received the Medaille Militaire the following year. Continuing observation duties, Fonck scored another kill on March 17, 1917. A highly veteran pilot, Fonck was asked to join the elite Escadrille les Cigognes (The Storks) on April 15. Accepting, he commenced fighter training and learned to fly the SPAD S.VII. Flying with les Cigognes Escadrille S.103, Fonck soon proved to be a lethal pilot and achieved ace status in May. As the summer progressed, his score continued to increase despite taking leave in July. Having learned from his earlier experiences, Fonck was always concerned about proving his kill claims. On September 14, he went to the extreme of retrieving the barograph of an observation aircraft he downed to prove his version of events. A ruthless hunter in the air, Fonck preferred to avoid dogfighting and stalked his prey for prolonged periods before striking quickly. A gifted marksman, he often downed German aircraft with extremely short bursts of machine gun fire. Understanding the value of enemy observation aircraft and their role as artillery spotters, Fonck focused his attention on hunting and eliminating them from the skies. Allied Ace of Aces During this period, Fonck, like Frances leading ace, Captain Georges Guynemer, began flying the limited production SPAD S.XII. Largely similar to the SPAD S.VII, this aircraft featured a hand-loaded 37mm Puteaux cannon firing through the propeller boss. Though an unwieldy weapon, Fonck claimed 11 kills with the cannon. He continued with this aircraft until transitioning to the more powerful SPAD S.XIII. Following Guynemers death on September 11, 1917, the Germans claimed that the French ace had been shot down by Lieutenant Kurt Wisseman. On the 30th, Fonck downed a German aircraft which was found to have been flown by a Kurt Wisseman. Learning this, he boasted that he had become the tool of retribution. Subsequent research has shown the aircraft downed by Fonck was most likely flown by a different Wisseman. Despite poor weather in October, Fonck claimed 10 kills (4 confirmed) in only 13 hours of flying time. Taking leave in December to be married, his total stood at 19 and he received the LÃ ©gion dhonneur. Resuming flying on January 19, Fonck scored two confirmed kills. Adding another 15 to his tally through April, he then embarked on a remarkable May. Goaded by a bet with squadron mates Frank Baylies and Edwin C. Parsons, Fonck downed six German aircraft in a three-hour span on May 9. The next several weeks saw the Frenchmen rapidly build his total and, by July 18, he had tied Guynemers record of 53. Passing his fallen comrade the next day, Fonck reached 60 by the end of August. Continuing to have success in September, he repeated his feat of downing six in one day, including two Fokker D.VII fighters, on the 26th. The final weeks of the conflict saw Fonck overtake leading Allied ace Major William Bishop. Scoring his final victory on November 1, his total finished at 75 confirmed kills (he submitted claims for 142) making him the Allied Ace of Aces. Despite his stunning success in the air, Fonck was never embraced by the public in the same way as Guynemer. Possessing a withdrawn personality, he seldom socialized with other pilots and instead preferred to focus on improving his aircraft and planning tactics. When Fonck did socialize, he proved to be an arrogant egotist. His friend Lieutenant Marcel Haegelen stated that though a slashing rapier in the sky, on the ground Fonck was a tiresome braggart, and even a bore. Postwar Leaving the service after the war, Fonck took time to write his memoirs. Published in 1920, they were prefaced by Marshal Ferdinand Foch. He also was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1919. He remained in this position until 1924 as a representative for Vosges. Continuing to fly, he performed as a racing and demonstration pilot. During the 1920s, Fonck worked with Igor Sikorsky in an attempt to win the Orteig Prize for the first nonstop flight between New York and Paris. On September 21, 1926, he attempted the flight in a modified Sikorsky S-35 but crashed on takeoff after one of the landing gears collapsed. The prize was won the following year by Charles Lindbergh. As the interwar years passed, Foncks popularity fell as his abrasive personality soured his relationship with the media. Returning to the military in 1936, Fonck received the rank of lieutenant colonel and later served as Inspector of Pursuit Aviation. Retiring in 1939, he was later drawn into the Vichy government by Marshal Philippe Petain during World War II. This was largely due to Petains desire to utilize Foncks aviation connections to Luftwaffe leaders Hermann GÃ ¶ring and Ernst Udet. The aces reputation was damaged in August 1940, when a spurious report was issued stating that he had recruited 200 French pilots for the Luftwaffe. Eventually escaping Vichy service, Fonck returned to Paris where he was arrested by the Gestapo and held at the Drancy internment camp. With the end of World War II, an inquiry cleared Fonck of any charges pertaining to collaboration with the Nazis and he was later awarded the Certificate of Resistance. Remaining in Paris, Fonck died suddenly on June 18, 1953. His remains were buried in his native village of Saulcy-sur-Meurthe. Selected Sources First World War: Rene FonckAce Pilots: Rene FonckThe Aerodrome: Rene Fonck
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Japanese Colonialism Was no Different to Western Colonialism - Essay Example Although, Japanese and British colonialism took place during the same period, their colonial policies were quite different in some aspects while similar in other. The major areas in which Japan and Britain formed its colonies were significantly different. The regions where the Japanese were the most dominant in their colonial rule are Korea, Taiwan and Philippines. Whereas the British rule was prevalent in Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Their policies seemed significantly different in some aspects, yet somehow similar in others. The basic difference in the policies of these colonial powers was their aim of colonization. The colonization by Japanese aimed at extending the Japanese empire in various parts of the world. Whereas the British aimed to give independence to its colonies whenever the need arises. Their policies relating to laws, rule and regulations and economic development were significantly different. In areas of managing cultural diversity and education, their policie s were quite similar. Japanese wanted to rule its colonies directly while the British supported the idea of indirect rule. In Africa, British let the African leaders to carry out their judicial and executive functions with the support of British officials. The British were in favor of indirect rule as they did not have to spend money in order to recreate the constitutional framework and hiring and firing of government employees. By letting the native leaders to continue carrying their functions, the British were able to save manpower and money. They gave a high degree of autonomy and strength to native authorities. In areas where there was one ethnic group, the local customary laws seemed to work. In areas where there were many ethnic groups, the British made councils which were made up of the natives who were the educated elite. These councils were in the supervision of British. It seemed that British were more interested in reaping the economic benefits from the region rather than in governing it (Kenneth A. Schultz and Alexander Lee). On the other hand, the Japanese installed new governments in which the governor generals were in charge of controlling the law and accommodating the needs of the native Koreans and Taiwanese. The legal system was extremely discriminatory against native populations in the colonies. Koreans ,who had gained education could participate in government, were given fewer rights than Japanese. The natives did not have the same level of protection under Japanese law as the Japanese did and were not given the right to elect their government. This kind of discrimination was practiced in order to make the colonial subjects so weak that they are unable to rebel against the colonial powers. Later the education system was also designed as such that the colonial subjects were not provided that level of education which would lead to a rebellion or at least empowerment of the colonial subjects. The Japanese aimed to have a controlled empire whic h would be controlled from Tokyo and the laws would be no different from those which govern the original Japanese nation. Initially, the local laws were kept intact and the Supreme court in Japan had no control over those in Taiwan and Korea. The impression was given that the judiciary will remain independent of the parent companyÃ¢â¬â¢s laws. In reality, this initiative was just taken in order to win the support of
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Health History assessment interview - Essay Example The next step in the medical assessment is to go through initial physical exams such as electrocardiogram, thyroid function test, blood glucose, blood lipids profile, liver function tests, electrolytes, creatinine, urea and full blood count. The patient, KB is a 67 year old male, who is married with two kids. He lives in his retirement apartment. He is originally a Nigerian but has been residing in the United States for the last thirty years. Both his kids are married and both KB and his wife are retired. After the enactment of the Affordable Care Act, the healthcare provision for senior citizens became a lot easier. Since KB is a resident of the United States and has been residing for more than thirty years, he is eligible to all the benefits provided by the Act. While previously, citizens like KB would put off their doctor appointments and treatments since they could not afford it, but now things have become quite different, and the American hospitals receive patients like KB and tend to them easily. Moreover, the presence of Medicare also ensures the health insurance for patients like KB who are elderly and have been facing very few health insurance options in the past. KB follows a cultural background of the Yoruba origination. Yoruba culture is one of the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. In Yoruba medical care, their origins include getting rid of symptoms, then identifying and working at the removal of the cause of illness, and then lastly maintenance of the body to restore the holistic balance. Normal tradition of Yoruba medical care believes in general traditional medicine. These medical care traditions cover simple ailments such as psychiatry, dermatology, chest-care, midwifery, pediatric, orthopedics, circumcision and internal medicine. More complex diseases were treated by mystic medicine, while the third type of medicine, i.e. the esoteric medication is more abstract which makes use of incantation, magic, herbs, amulets
Saturday, January 25, 2020
The emergence of sociology What social forces were at work that led to the emergence of sociology in the late 18th and early 19th Century? Sociology can be defined as the study of societies and their development in terms of their political decisions, ethics, economic development, religion and laws. It consists of the organization of collections of human bodies into forms of social life. The end of the 18th century was marked by the French Revolution, the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution initiated in England. The purpose of this essay is to discuss these social forces in terms of their contribution towards the emergence of sociology. The three major factors which influence the emergence of sociology as a sphere of study began in the late eighteenth century with the French Revolution, the period known as the Enlightenment and the industrial revolution. Each one of these influences has contributed to what Karl Polanyi , the Austro-Hungarian philosopher termed the Great Transformation in his book of the same name, one of the results of this great transformation resulted in the emergence of the science of sociology. History began to change in 1789 when the French Revolution broke out followed by the Enlightenment the creation of a new framework of ideas about man, society and nature. In addition, further economic and social changes were brought forward with the industrial revolution firstly in England and then in the whole of Europe. The French revolution had lasted for ten whole years and was the first modern and ideological revolution of its kind. It had a great impact on society because it changed its structure. It managed to eliminate the social distinctions between people and the feudal society.The power shifted away from the Church and came to hands of the people. This was the first time people were seen as citizens. In addition to this, the clerical hierarchy which had existed until then gave up its rights and property. These changes had a historical, political and social impact in the entire of Europe and not just France.Plato and Aristotle had become exterminally manifest in the social and historical world as a consequence of the revolution in France. Additionally, the French Revolution brought significant changes to the family since it was followed by the Declaration of Human Rights which stated that all humans are born free and equal. Changes to family-related issues were also brought into force. At the same time the Church lost much of its tremendous influence and power, which devolved to the people. The clerical hierarchy that had existed until then gave up its rights and property. Civil marriage and divorce were established. Civil marriage was another way for people to project their doubts upon the Church. A couple blessed by God could now follow different paths in their lives with the divorce being established and accepted. Education and religion were also subject to changes.. The second major event, that took place during the late 18th and early 19th century, was Industrialisation. The Industrial Revolution began in England in 18th century (1870) and brought several changes in societies, shaping them in the form they are today. It was the major shift of technological, socioeconomic and cultural conditions in the late 18th and early 19th century that began in Britain and spread throughout the world (Wikipedia, Internet encyclopaedia). At the end of the 18th century the world was experiencing a rapid population growth which led to an economic boom. As the demand was increasing, more workers were needed to cover the increasing demand. Production of goods increased. This was a different type of work before Industrialisation people were working in a traditional forms. Technology brought significant changes in the work place which led to great improvement and efficiency. Machines were now helping people in production and thereby improving time efficiency and production volume as well as the conditions under which people worked. Technological changes included the use of iron and steel, new energy sources. These changes in technology improved both the quality of the products being produced as well as the work-conditions of the workers in production. Fewer efforts were now required by the workers in terms of producing a good. Technology also improved transportation and hence trade and commerce between countries. Markets expanded even more since goods and raw materials that were scarce in one country could be supplied from another. Machines became the symbols of the new society and humanity could be seen to be all working into this machine. In addition, the area of communication also saw great improvement during this time period and people could now travel easier and reach their destination quicker. In the past, the only method people could communicate between them was through letters. This way of communication however, was both time consuming and uncertain since the letters were often lost somewhere in between. Fortunately, during the late 18th and early 19th century letters could be delivered faster and new ways of communication were developed such as the telegraph. These improvements also brought people and societies closer to one another. People moved to the cities were the markets began to emerge. The Enlightenment was a significant contributing factor to the emergence of sociology in the late 18th and early 19th century. The Enlightenment is considered to be the source of critical ideas, such as the centrality freedom, democracy, and reason as primary values of society. It is the creation of a new framework of ideas about man, society and nature, which challenged existing conceptions rooted in a traditional world-view, dominated by Christianity (Hamilton,23). The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement consisting of many philosophers. The most popular figures of this new framework were Charles Montesquieu (1689-1755), Jacques Tugot (1729-1781) and Jean Condorcet (1743-1794). They managed to challenge the traditional and existing conceptions of the world. The thinkers of Enlightenment aimed to teach people stop listening and following blindly the churchs opinion and decisions, and start thinking on their own. Challenge what they hear and develop their critical judgment. People were now advised to try and solve their problems on their own rather than wait for God to provide a solution for them. This new way of thinking was a big factor in economic growth. The iincreased education, through the emergence of upper class philosophers, the publishing of newspapers and the emergence of new types of media resulted in the arts, such a writing and painting to only develop, improve and flourish during that time period. Reaching to a conclusion, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolutionand the Enlightenment were the three major factors that contributed towards the emergence of sociology in the late 18th and early 19th century. During this historical period,peoples lives became much easier and better. All these changes helped people become more open minded and created for them a life with more choices. , This important turning point in history led to a technological and economic boom. It also resulted in people learning to live in societies. A person who cannot live in society, or does not need to because he is self-sufficient, is either a beast or a God. (Aristotle, Politics) Bibliography Lecture and Tutorial notes Wikipedia-online encyclopedia Internet the rise of sociology Morrison, K. 2006. Marx Durkheim Weber. Bilton, T. Bonnet, K. Jones, P. Lawson, T. Skinner, D. Stanworth, M. Webster, A. 2002. Introductory sociology, 4th edition. Palgrave Macmillan
Friday, January 17, 2020
As the German economy declined President Paul von Hindenburg looked for outside influences to help improve the economy. Using Adolf Hitler, Von Hindenburg terminated the democracy and started new laws. After Von Hindenburg died, Hitler took complete control as the new dictator of Germany. During World War I, Nazi Germany and its collaborators murdered six million Jewish men, women, and children in the time period known as he Holocaust. Concentration camps, Auschwitz, and medical experiments contributed to the attempts of systematic dehumanization during the holocaust. Initially, Hitler and his armies built concentrations camps to seclude anyone not perceived as the ideal human being. Upon taking one step off of their transportation Jews immediately separated into different groups, the weak sent off for death, while the strong stayed. In his book, Holocaust, Geoffrey Wigoder says, Ã¢â¬Å"Upon arrival at Auschwitz, Jews faced selection. A SS physician would divide the young and the abl e-bodied from other prisoners. Those selected to die would be sent directly to the gas chambers.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Wigoder 190Ã¢â¬ ) The SS officers used the new delivery of prisoners as a selection process to decide who stayed to work while the unfit reluctantly left for the gas chambers. With scarce resources, officers used food as a privilege and a punishment, with little to no food, prisoners saw the idea of eating as a confirmation of another day of living. Johann Paul Kremer explains, Ã¢â¬Å"Typically prisoners got a little more than 1000 calories a day; most of the Ã¢â¬Å"foodÃ¢â¬ was nearly inedible. Within three to six months, many prisoners succumbed to starvation.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"KremerÃ¢â¬ ) Even though the prisoners ate everyday, the SS did the bare minimum of keeping them alive, only feeding them inedible food. With the over population of prisoners in camps the Nazis took advantage of the numerous people and put them to work for their own military needs. In the article, Concentration Camps, it states Ã¢â¬Å"The incarceration of increasing numbers of people in the concentration camps assured at least the quantity of the labor supply even as the brutality if the regimen inside the camps depleted the number of available workers.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Concentration CampsÃ¢â¬ ) With the camps quickly filling up the SS had an easy access for workers, but the conditions of the camps made it difficult to sustain high survival rates. Contrary to the harsh life of living in a concentration camp, prisoners did everything necessary to keep fighting, waiting for their rescue. Additionally, Auschwitz I, II, and IIIÃ some of the more well know camps, abused and killed a majority of all prisoners that went through their gates. The NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s took advantage of every aspect to having prisoners in their camps, whether they took away lives or put people to work. In the article A Tortured Legacy, written by Andrew Nagorski explains, Ã¢â¬Å"Auschwitz was both a death camp and a complex of labor camps, which accounts for a relatively large number of survivors.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"NagorskiÃ¢â¬ ) Auschwitz camps murdered million people, but the prisoners put aside that worked survived through the harsh conditions and ended up living a full life after. Having no empathy at all, the soldiers used whatever storage available, and when full, they used outside resources and compacted as many prisoners in as possible. Johann Paul Kremer states, The overcrowding of the barracks is something that virtually even-survivors memoir stresses. Many of those barracks were built to standard design OKH 260/9 Ã¢â¬â that had been developed to stable 52 horses. Ã¢â¬ ¦ the barracks Ã¢â¬Å"housed hundreds of human beings in space that barely gave room to breath.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"KremerÃ¢â¬ ) Every camp experienced over population but since Auschwitz, one of the more popular camps, filled up quickly, an alternative to wasting money to build more space had an easy solution, to put prisoners where animals previously lived. Auschwitz, known for killing, gave prisoners a new hope to live when jobs kept people out of the gas chambers and in the kitchens. Andrew Nagorski also says, Torture was a common place and the early mortality rate was very high. That changed once prisoners latched onto jobs- in the kitchens, warehouses, and other sheltered places-which increased their odds for survival. Of the 150,000 Polish prisoners who were sent to Auschwitz about 75,000 died there. (Ã¢â¬Å"NagorskiÃ¢â¬ ) Although Auschwitz killed many, it also saved many lives, giving opportunities to work keeping prisoners out of harms way. Millions went through the walls of Auschwitz, it provided as a last destination for some, but for others it brutally took a never forgetting toll on many lives. Lastly, NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s doctors took advantage of the prisoners using them as test subjects for their own experiments. For war purposes, German physicians tested multiple scenarios that might occur while fighting. In the article Josef Mengele, by Michael Berenbaum, explains, In Dachau, physicians from the German air force and from the German Experimental Institution for Aviation conducted high-altitude experiments, using a low-pressure chamber, to determine the maximum altitudeÃ from which crews of damaged aircraft could parachute to safety. Scientists there carried out so-called freezing experiments using prisoners to find an effective treatment for hypothermia. They also used prisoners to test various methods of making seawater potable. (Ã¢â¬Å"BerenbaumÃ¢â¬ ) The doctors took advantage of their access to people and used them as test subjects to try out their own theories, when the prisoners had no way of saying no. Scientist used the concentration camp prisoners as lab rats for their own use and abused their power as doctors when tested out experimental drugs. Michael Berenbaum also says, Ã¢â¬Å"At the German concentration camps Ã¢â¬ ¦ scientists tested immunization compounds and sera for the prevention and treatment of contagious diseases, including malaria, typhus, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, yellow fever, and infectious hepatitis.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"BerenbaumÃ¢â¬ ) So many people in such a small area made it easy for infectious diseases to spread quickly, which led the doctors to use this as an opportunity to make a name for themselves by trying out self made cures on the prisoners. Josef Mengele, a very well known doctor throughout t he camps and today, played a huge part in the camps, constantly trying new ideas and keeping souvenirs. Lastly, Michael Berenbaum states, Ã¢â¬Å"Mengele also attempted to demonstrate the Ã¢â¬Å"degenerationÃ¢â¬ of Jewish and Ã¢â¬Å"GypsyÃ¢â¬ blood through the documentation of physical oddities and the collection and harvesting of tissue samples and body parts.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"BerenbaumÃ¢â¬ ) Since Mengele started from the bottom he wanted to make a name for himself and he sought to do this through proving degeneration through Jews, he tried doing this by keeping body parts and sampling tissues. Exploited through the doctors, prisoners had to withstand serve experiments constantly pushing their limits. With the help of outside resources, Hitler and his armies used unnecessary tactics to terrorize and dictate Germany. As the economy constantly fell downhill, and Hitler there at Von HindenburgÃ¢â¬â¢s constant aid, Germany looked for the way out. Hitler took the position as absolute dictator and ended up taking the lives of millions. At all costs Hitler made sure to get rid of the impurities using concentration camps and medical experiments to carry out the process. During the Holocaust the Nazis used the Jews, manipulating them, subjecting them to the harsh conditions of unhealthy living, little to no food, and experimental tests, having no input on their lives.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Throughout history, countries around the world have demanded political change. Most of these changes have resulted in a step in the direction of democracy. However, the sustainability of a new democratic regime depends on how strong the foundations of the democratic institutions are. France and Russia are two of the most notable states that sought to replace dysfunctional authoritarian models with democracy. Despite approaching democracy in similar ways, democracy in France proved to be successful and democracy in Russia was not. This is because unlike France, the democratic institutions in Russia were built on weak foundations making democratic performance in Russia illegitimate. Although the origins of Russia may be unclear, it is widely accepted that Ivan the terrible is known as the first Russian emperor, or tsar. Ivan demonstrated authoritarian rule through his destruction of government institutions that interfered with his consolidation of power and developed a personal police force to terrorize political oppositions. This type of authoritarian leader continued in Russia through leaders such as Vladimir Ilich Lenin and Joseph Stalin. After Lenin, and the Communist Party, took power after a revolutionary victory in 1917, Russia was renamed the Soviet Union and broken up into 15 districts. The USSR recognized RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s multinational identity by creating a federal system around major ethnic groups. However, the new republics had very little power and authority was in theShow MoreRelatedThe French Revolution And The Age Of Enlightenment854 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBorn of two fathers, the American Revolution and the age of enlightenment, the French revolu tion was primarily a social upheaval that conspired to overthrow religious and privileged classes. The French Revolution changed the degree to which the people were willing to suffer and sacrifice in order to achieve their war aims through democratizing the Army and creating the necessity of larger political alliances than ever before. Guibert wrote in his Essai: Imagine that there arose in Europe a peopleRead More Russian Revolution Essay1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRussia had been an autocratic government for 300 years under the Romanov Dynasty before the revolution of 1917. When problems started in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s most people were serfs that had been freed about 20 years before. In 1914 during World War One, Czar Nicholas II decided to stay in war with Germany despite what the rest of his country thought. Nicholas posed a distraction from the countries problems. His plan was to keep his soldiers minds off of the horrible living conditions of Russia by stayingRead MoreThe French And Russian Revolutions1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe French and Russian Revolutions featured hated monarchies, fascinating rumors, and allusive innuendos which made them both very interesting. In fact, in both revolutions, the murder of the royal family was one of the more historic events of the war. In France at the time of the revolution, the rulers were M arie Antoinette-born Marie Antoine-from Austria, and Louis XVI-born Louis-Auguste. The two were married when Marie Antoinette was fourteen and Louis was fifteen. In Russia at the time of theirRead MoreNapoleon s Position As The Leader Of France1188 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe French Revolution marked a significant shift in the status of not only France but also Europe and the world as an entirety. In a period of uproar and uncertainty, the people of France saw themselves without a specific leader to alter the status of the country. By taking full control of almost every aspect of the country, Napoleon Bonaparte s position as the leader of France saw significant changes in the army, economic and social positions of the once powerful nation. In his rapidRead MoreThe Revolutions That Changed Their Respective Societies1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Throughout history, the world has seen revolts. Revolutionaries attempting to overthrow the government. But only a few are called revolutions, because they succeeded in overthrowing their government. In this paper, I will examine the 5 revolutions that we have studied thus far: American, French, Haitian, Mexican, and Russian revolutions, and whether they fundamentally changed their respective societies. The revolutionaries promised change that would benefit the people, but when one looks closelyRead MoreEssay on The United States and World War I1683 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesI. With the assassination sparking the start of World War I, the U.S. didnÃ¢â¬â¢t enter the war right away. In fact, the U.S. waited about 3 years to enter the war. They wanted to stay neutral and thought that the war was none of their concern. Shor tly after the start of the war, Woodrow Wilson declared a policy of neutrality. They wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be involved on any side in the war, but would offer loans, trades, and sell weapons to both sides. The U.S. stayed neutral up until 1917. They entered the war for manyRead MoreEssay about Napoleon Bonaparte: A Not Ordinary Man1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOne of the bloodiest revolutions in the history, the French Revolution, had end. This revolution had a significant impact to the French society, but it left several horrific and bad effects to the French people, especially for those who were guillotined. Despite of these impacts, there was a man who put the French society to a new beginning. Napoleon Bonaparte, a French military and political leader, gained popularity because he was no ordinary man. His intelligence in his childhood, his heroismRead MoreThe Russian Dance And Ballet1655 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The history of Russian dance and ballet is extraordinarily complex. The Russia ns have always enjoyed dance; they were dancing for entertainment and ritual before they were even introduced to Christianity. However, the start of their most culturally significant form of dance, ballet, did not start until 1675 in a small town near Moscow (The Great History 11). Since its humble beginnings, balletÃ¢â¬â¢s evolution in Russia has exploded. Most notably, its growth can be seen through two world famous theaters:Read MoreNapoleon Bonaparte/ Napoleon I, is considered one of the greatest military leaders in history. He1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexiled because his troops had been overpowered by Russians. Napoleon I conquered much of Europe, and continued being a leader after being exiled. Napoleon Bonaparte was born on August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, France. He was the fourth child of 11. A child of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Romolino. His father was known for his Corsican nobility. After the annexation of Corsica by France in 1769, Carlo received the same rights and privileges as the French nobility. In January 1779 a young Napoleon leftRead MoreThe Rise Of The 19th Century951 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The 19th century had also witnessed a succession of military revolutions. At sea, steel had superseded wooden hulls and steam had superseded sail. HMS Dreadnought, launched by Britain in 1906 with turbine engines and 10 12-inch guns, made all existing battleships obsolete. Ã¢â¬Å" The military revolutions prior to the first world war came at a high cost, and to build these ships, artillery and weaponry, which would improve the employment and government spending in the economy. This increase in government